Created on Thursday, 24 April 2014 01:49
Dr Asad Bajtal
Asked Kaname , wise men from taif :
- Since when are you a man ?
From the first thought , said
- And before that ?
I was just born , answers
In his article " The answer to the question : What is Enlightenment ?" ( " Berlinische Monatsschrift " , 1784 ) , Kant on this motion be said : Enlightenment is man's way out of his self-inculpated ( selbsverschuldete ) immaturity . Immaturity is the inability to use their common sense without interference leadership . This immaturity is voluntary , if its cause lies not in lack of understanding , but in lack of resolve and courage to use it, without the leadership of another .
Sapere Aude ! - Have the courage to serve our sanity ! It is , therefore, the slogan of the Enlightenment .
Of course , Rene Descartes ( R. Descartes ) , before Kant , eliminates any possibility of eventual lack of reason as the reason for his non-use , considering that the same is evenly distributed among the people , and that all people are " naturally " able to distinguish truth from error . In this context, the courage shown by reason of serving as the basis of ethical profiling individuals ; ie courage to serve their own minds, becomes the basis of public life ( civil ) attitude that ( psycho ) politically articulate as courageous self-assertion of the individual self in the resistance to the oppressive , or otherwise civilized mores of life unacceptable rule authority . There courage of self-affirmation of the self as a rational being determined independently to think yourself - in-the- world called here - civic courage . Therefore, civil courage ( a man 's determination in the wake of its social and existential self-affirmation ) , can be described as " the power of the mind to overcome fear " that the socio- political figures as effective and proven means of continuous ideological control and self-control ( behavioral self-censorship ) public opinion .
esadbajtalPovijesno , such self-assertion of man - citizen becomes relatively wider and more serious feasible only descartovskim principle izvijesnosti supported on an incorruptible epistemological self-consciousness of the individual with whom , on the life and social scene of the West , enters a new form of " self-legitimation ontological habitus man ." In socio - political terms , it is about establishing one epistemological new world based on axiological probuđenoj awareness that nothing is neither perfect nor complete, and that , in its incompleteness ( Buddhist - Hegelian : processuality ) , must , for the sake of publicly advocated truthfulness , constantly be exhibited dif Court / Court of mind as dif - lučivanja truth and error , no matter how otherwise , " it - something " in their realities seemed il / i sounded plausible and acceptable. Because, in his condemnation psychodynamic based on movement (German Bewegung , eng . Movement) , " the opinion is essentially the negation of what is before us " ( Hegel ) . As a historical structure of things , logic heraklitovske changes , implies permanence of their negation , that articulate the societal changes such dif - forest constituent assembly elder civil commotion , ie , attitude of not accepting the current , even when it is existing quite well , simply because they can (a citizen , as - rational animal - will) , that is - and better .
It's reasonable ( logical ) being (animal rationale ) , the Greeks called ζώου λόγον έχον , where this comes from λόγον λέγειν , which means to collect , to face the other , and above all something to convey the sense brought to bear , and thus allow hereof to emerge from its (a) a krivenosti . Root - preserved in the form of our word " see " is a Sanskrit origin ( Vedas ) and mainly means - to know what is to date clearly preserved in slovenščini - VEDETA I vem / ve ( de ) m / = I know , that I see how things are . From here, the only one who sees ( the spirit , the mind ) , and he knows that . *
So , to "see " in the sense - " know " means : a) confirm the presence or absence of a rational view of their belongings ; and , b ) assert themselves in this view , ie opinion mediated knowledge ( cogito , ergo sum ) .
Therefore , under the theme entitled , " not the individual self as such, it confirms that myself , but the individual self as the bearer of reason . The courage of being like the self to itself is the courage to follow her own mind and to resist the irrational power " ( P.Tillich ) , as opposed to the original unacceptable rationality of the world ; those of rationality , from which dif - rational reason to come, and which , critically opservirajući actual givens of the world , again and again.
The moment when , for whatever reason , ceases to combat and non - rational opposition , courage, self- terminates in samopredajućoj to ease conformist adherence to given . This is the time of giving a comprehensive participation in the universal , rational self-affirmation of man ; moment falls from a higher to a lower civil submissive - poslušnički level . In the socio - political level it is the abandonment of intellectual samjeravanja world ; withdrawal of its per - reforestation and its by - ways razumljivanja as civilizing the world on the principles of Kantian zagovaranog Ratio ( Ratia in his enlightenment the required courage and self-criticism ) .
Through the prism of Cartesian methodical skepticism as the basis of civil " reflexive sensibility " power and the state must lose their traditionally - servile outlines chimerical untouchability . In his naspramnosti tory due to questionable and even descartovske doubt that confirmation dreamed izvijesnosti located exclusively in itself : only doubt is unquestionable . I just confidence wipe out doubts . Everything else is subject to the dilemma excited the court of reason and its legitimate survival in seeking its approval and approval . And here , with the drčnom suspicion of " untouchable " , begins a harrowing history , historia CALAMITATUM a history of bloody hardship , persecution and political trials Pleiades najumnijh head of the world because of their independent critical thought , that thought that , while remaining faithful to the postulates of logos , does not fit the incoherence uneducated ( g ) is analyzed orders Authority ( Church , State , ideologies, power , leaders ... ) .
As the most famous , the most prominent aspect of civic courage manifested in history , Socrates' trial looks means insurmountable chasm in the cultural history of mankind that individual conscience and state , ideal and real , they get rough and irreconcilably separated ( M.Horkheimer ) . Socrates unacceptance gesture becomes an ideal -typical paradigmatic form of courage Big refusal .
In the name of what?
The name invokes ethical absent in the present , because " que sommes - nous donc sans secours de ce qui n'existe dog " . [ 1 ] More specifically : what is really against the truth of the reality that it is a reality - in the way of rational ( resp . mental ) capabilities of the world . Man as a rational animal can not and that does not count with these options ; can not be ignored on the basis of a rational world . And his mind , in his critical restlessness , constant pressure not only recognize , but also to affirm their own , and - rational possibilities of the world . And that , guided by this knowledge , superior to the fact of its realities .
They do not conform to the dictate of fact , the human mind them , again and again , normative- critical undergoes its standards as the highest standards of historical world . Following the trail of Mind , critical- driven perfectionist impetus , rational animal coming to the realization that the mind is implacable opponent of the current state of things ; that history as a struggle of the mind against the no-mind , a constant struggle for freedom , and that "non- mental reality needs to be changed , until it comes into harmony with the mind." The imperative of these changes lies the natural origin of human unhappiness as actuating pulses that civil courage , asking for more and better , rejects reconciliation with existing . Every " is " its value must be tested and verified in relation to a possible " should " ; value is never carried out a fact , but the possibilities of the world .
For something to be real human is not enough ( just ) to exist , but to exist " in a format that conforms to the regulations of the mind " ( Hegel ) . And for this to be achieved in a fierce battle that advocates a new social plan that is " inconsistent with the given order ." This struggle precede conscience ( as an ethical term nemirenja ) , and the courage to publicly act according to their conscience , as it is pedagogically exemplary happened in the case of Socrates . Without ( Civil ) courage conscience would only be a sad [ 2 ] of our life , and disregard of her conformist concession to the government that ( mostly ) carefree and irresponsible lives just by religiously - silenced and ethical castrated , ie Cowardly most conciliatory . Therefore , inviting citizens to dignity civic courage , intellectual giant , Nobel laureate Albert Einstein , asking them to support the dignity seek in their own conscience , " do not ever do anything that is against your conscience , even if you and asks states ." [ 3 ]
What is good , you ask ?
It's good to be bold !
CourageZašto courage ?
Because he is running from disturbing changes every ideological an established company seeks to protect as blocked , so thoughtful and instrumentalization of human fear . For this purpose mastered a number of pressing psychological techniques such as exposure of the moral discredit opponents , their blackmail , imprisonment , kažnjavnje , excommunication , dismissal from work ... etc. In fact , " creating an impression that is constantly busy combating the enemy ," power is ostensibly justified and further solidifies not choosing at this either means or ways of fixing this . In this sense, every rebellion as a gesture of civic courage is a decisive and dignified response conscientious individual to authoritative manipulation of fear .
More precisely, as ethically exemplary response to combat the cynicism of supposed enemies , civil courage is not only courageous , but also noble . So Plato rejects instinctive , animal bravery as a possible model of human courage . For, if the courage primarily driven by knowing what to reject, in the name of anything, then it just goes with the man as a rational being (animal rationale ) is ready to " take on themselves negatively suggests that fear works entirely positive " ( P.Tillich ) .
Only an act of rational self-affirmation , courage, dignity of human beings that which, despite numerous risks , response call their deepest human resources and so the fate resolutely says - No! The answer to the question of the origin and determination ( which is not general , that not all people are brave ) , relies on some personal - psychological assumptions of the individual in his openness pushed their existential possibilities . This openness implies the power of intuitive recognition of what a human being internal closely . Following this samobliskosti , " be open " means to hear the call of the inner human , and - answer him .
What is and how a particular behavior of this kind ?
The answer is simple - the power of human conscience .