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GRAĐANSKA HRABROST IZMEĐU STRAHA I SAVJESTI

dr Esad Bajtal

Pitali Kanamu, mudraca iz Tajfa:
- Otkad si čovjek?
Od prve misli, reče
- A, prije toga?
Bio sam samo rođen, odgovori

U svom članku “Odgovor na pitanje: što je to prosvjetiteljstvo“? (“Berlinische Monatsschrift”, 1784), I. Kant o biti toga pokreta kaže: Prosvjetiteljstvo je izlaz čovjeka  iz njegove samoskrivljene (selbsverschuldete) nezrelosti. Nezrelost je nemoć da se služimo svojim razumom bez tuđeg vođstva. Samoskrivljena je ova nezrelost, ako njezin uzrok ne leži u nedostatku razuma,već u nedostatku odlučnosti i hrabrosti, da se njime služimo bez vođstva nekog drugog.

Sapere aude! – Imaj hrabrosti, da se služiš vlastitim razumom!  To je, dakle, krilatica prosvjetiteljstva.

Naravno, Rene Dekart (R. Descartes), još prije Kanta, otklanja svaku eventualnu mogućnost nedostatka razuma kao razlog njegova nekorištenja, smatrajući da je isti ravnomjerno raspoređen među ljudima, i da su svi ljudi “po prirodi” sposobni da razlikuju istinu od zablude. U tom kontekstu, hrabrost služenja razumom pokazuje se kao temelj etičkog profiliranja individue; tj. hrabrost služenja sopstvenim razumom, postaje osnovom javnog životnog (građanskog) stava koji se (psiho)politički artikulira kao odvažno samopotvrđivanje individualnog sopstva u otporu spram opresivne, ili na neki drugi način civiliziranim uzusima življenja neprihvatljive vladavine vlasti. Tu hrabrost samopotvrđivanja sopstva kao razumnog bića odlučnog da samostalno misli sebe-u-svijetu ovdje nazivamo – građanska hrabrost. Stoga građansku hrabrost (odlučnost čovjeka na tragu svog društvenog i egzistencijalnog samopotvrđivanja), svodimo na “moć uma da savlada strah” koji socijalno-politički figurira kao efikasno i ideološki provjereno sredstvo kontinuirane kontrole i samokontrole (behavioralna autocenzura) javnog mnijenja.

Povijesno, takvo samopotvrđivanje čovjeka-građanina postaje razmjerno šire i ozbiljnije izvedivo tek descartovskim principom izvijesnosti oslonjene na epistemološki nepotkupljivu samosvijest individue s kojom, na životnu i društvenu scenu Zapada, stupa novi oblik “samolegitimacije ontološkog habitusa čovjeka”. U društveno-političkom smislu, radi se o uspostavljanju jednog epistemološki novog svijeta zasnovanog na aksiološki probuđenoj svijesti da ništa nije ni savršeno ni dovršeno, te da, u svojoj nedovršenosti (buddhističko-hegelovski: procesualnosti), mora, zarad javno zagovarane istinoljubivosti, stalno biti izlagano sudu raz/uma kao sudu raz-lučivanja istine i zablude, ma koliko inače, “to-nešto”, u svojoj datosti  izgledalo il/i zvučalo uvjerljivo i prihvatljivo. Jer, u svojoj psihodinamski zasnovanoj osuđenosti na kretanje (njem. Bewegung, eng. movement), “mišljenje je u biti negacija onoga što je pred nama” (Hegel). Kako povijesni ustroj stvarî, logikom heraklitovske mijene, podrazumijeva stalnost njihove negacije, ta se mijena societalno artikulira kao raz-umska konstituanta zova građanske pobune, tj., stava nemirenja sa postojećim, pa i onda kad je to postojeće sasvim dobro, prosto zato jer može (a građanin, kao – animal rationale – hoće), da bude – i bolje.

To razumno (logično) biće (animal rationale), Grci su zvali ζώου λόγον έχον, pri čemu ovo λόγον dolazi od λέγειν, što znači skupljati, suočiti se sa drugim, a prije svega nešto saopćiti u smislu iznijeti na vidjelo, i time iznesenom omogućiti da se pojavi iz svoje s(a)krivenosti. Korijen vid- sačuvan u našoj riječi “vidjeti”, sanskrtskog je porijekla (Vede) i pretežno znači – znati, što je do danas jasno sačuvano u slovenščini – védeti: Ja vem /ve(de)m/ = ja znam, tj. ja vidim kako stvari stoje. Odavde, samo onaj ko vidi (duhom, razumom), taj i zna.*

Dakle, “vidjeti”, u smislu – “znati“, znači: a) potvrditi prisustvo ili odsustvo stvari njihovim razumskim viđenjem; i, b) potvrditi sebe u tom viđenju, tj. mišljenjem posredovanom znanju (cogito, ergo sum).

Stoga, u okviru naslovljene teme, “nije individualno sopstvo kao takvo ono koje potvrđuje sebe, nego individualno sopstvo kao nosilac razuma. Hrabrost bivstvovanja kao sopstvo za sebe je hrabrost da se slijedi sopstveni razum i da se odupire iracionalnoj vlasti” (P.Tillich), kao neprihvatljivoj opreci spram izvorne racionalnosti svijeta; one racionalnosti iz koje nam raz-umsko razuma dolazi, i kojoj se, kritički opservirajući aktualnu datost svijeta, uvijek iznovo vraća.

Onoga časa kad, iz bilo kog razloga, prestane s borbom protiv te ne-racionalne opreke, hrabrost sopstva skončava u samopredajućoj se lagodnosti konformističkog pristajanja na dato. To je trenutak odustajanja od sveobuhvatnog sudjelovanja u univerzalnom, racionalnom samopotvrđivanju čovjeka; trenutak pada s višeg građanskog na niži podaničko-poslušnički nivo. U društveno-političkoj ravni riječ je o odustajanju od intelektualnog samjeravanja svijeta; odustajanju od njegovog po-umljivanja i njegovog po-razumljivanja kao načina uljuđivanja svijeta na principima kantovski zagovaranog ratia (ratia u njegovoj prosvjetiteljski zahtijevanoj hrabrosti i samokritičnosti).

Kroz prizmu kartezijanske metodske skepse kao osnove građanskog “refleksivnog senzibiliteta” vlast i država nužno gube tradicionalno-podaničke obrise himeričke nedodirljivosti. U svojoj naspramnosti ratiu sve dospijeva u ravan descartovske upitnosti i sumnje koja potvrdu sanjane izvijesnosti nalazi isključivo u sebi samoj: Samo je sumnja nesumnjiva. I samo samouvjerenost potire sumnju. Sve drugo podliježe dvojbom pobuđenom sudu razuma i svoj legitimni opstanak traži u njegovom odobrenju i odobravanju. I tu, s tom drčnom sumnjom u “nedodirljivo”, počinje mučna historija, historia calamitatum kao povijest krvavih nevolja, progona i političkih suđenja plejade najumnijh glava svijeta zbog njihovog samostalnog kritičkog mišljenja, onog mišljenja koje, ostajući vjerno postulatima logosa, ne pristaje na nesuvislost neobrazlo(g)ženih naloga Autoriteta (Crkve, Države, Ideologije, Vlasti, Vođe…).

Kao najpoznatije, i s aspekta najuzornije ispoljene građanske hrabrosti u povijesti, Sokratovo suđenje izgleda označava nepremostivu provaliju u kulturnoj historiji čovječanstva kojom individualna savjest i država, idealno i realno, bivaju grubo i nepomirljivo razdvojeni (M.Horkheimer). Sokratov gest nepristajanja postaje idealno-tipski paradigmatičan obrazac hrabrosti Velikog odbijanja.

U ime čega?

U ime etičkog zaziva odsutnog u prisutno, jer “que sommes – nous donc sans secours de će qui n’existe pas“.[1] Još preciznije: šta je zbilja spram istine o zbilji koja bi da se o-zbilji na način racionalne (resp. umne) mogućnosti svijeta. Čovjek kao animal rationale ne može a da ne računa s tim mogućnostima; ne može da se ogluši o racionalnu osnovu svijeta. Njegov ga Um, u svom kritičkom nemiru, neprestano pritiska ne samo da prepozna, već i da afirmira kako vlastite, tako i – racionalne mogućnosti svijeta. I da se, vođen tom spoznajom, izdigne iznad činjenica njegove datosti.

Ne pristajući na diktat činjenica, ljudski um ih, uvijek iznova, normativno-kritički podvrgava svojim mjerilima kao najvišim mjerilima povijesnog svijeta. Idući tragom Uma, gonjen kritičko-perfekcionističkim impetusom, animal rationale stiže do shvaćanja da je um nepomirljivi protivnik aktualnog stanja stvari; da je povijest kao borba uma protiv ne-uma, stalna borba za slobodu, i da “ne-umna zbilja treba da se mijenja, sve dok ne dođe u sklad sa umom”. U imperativu te mijene leži prirodni iskon ljudskog nezadovoljstva kao pokretačkog impulsa građanske hrabrosti koja, tražeći više i bolje, odbija mirenje s postojećim. Svako «jeste» svoju vrijednost mora provjeravati i potvrđivati u odnosu prema mogućem «treba da»; vrijednost se nikad ne izvodi iz činjenica, nego iz mogućnosti svijeta.

Da bi nešto bilo ljudski zbiljsko nije dovoljno (samo) da postoji, nego  da postoji “u obliku koji odgovara pravilima uma” (Hegel). A za to se treba izboriti u žestokoj borbi koja zagovara novi društveni plan koji je “u opreci sa datim poretkom”.  Toj borbi prethode savjest (kao etički izraz nemirenja), i hrabrost da se javno postupi po vlastitoj savjesti, kako se to pedagoški uzorno zbilo u Sokratovom slučaju. Bez (građanske) hrabrosti savjest bi bila samo žalostan gost[2] našeg života, a oglušivanje o nju konformistički ustupak vlasti koja (uglavnom) lagodno i neodgovorno živi upravo od savjesno-ućutkane i etički kastrirane, tj. kukavički pomirljive većine. Zato, pozivajući građane na dostojanstvo građanske hrabrosti, intelektualni velikan, nobelovac Albert Einstein, traži od njih da oslonac tog dostojanstva potraže u vlastitoj savjesti: “ne činite nikad ništa što se protivi vašoj savjesti, pa čak ako to od vas i država traži“.[3]

II 

                        Šta je dobro, pitate?
                             Dobro je biti hrabar!
                                           F. Nietzsche 

Zašto hrabrost?

Zato što se, bježeći od uznemiravajućih promjena, svako ideološki etablirano društvo nastoji zaštititi koliko refleksnom, toliko i promišljenom instrumentalizacijom ljudskog straha. U tu svrhu ovladalo je brojnim tehnikama psihološkog presinga kao što su: prokazivanje i moralno diskreditiranje neistomišljenika, njihovo ucjenjivanje, zatvaranje, kažnjavnje, ekskomuniciranje, otpuštanje s posla…itd. Zapravo, “stvaranjem utiska da je neprekidno zauzeta suzbijanjem neprijatelja”, vlast se prividno opravdano i dodatno učvršćuje ne birajući pri tom ni sredstva ni načine tog učvršćivanja. U tom smislu svaka pobuna kao gest građanske hrabrosti predstavlja odlučan i dostojanstven odgovor savjesnog pojedinca na vlastodržačku manipulaciju strahom.

Još tačnije, kao etički uzoran odgovor na cinizam suzbijanja tobožnjih neprijatelja, građanska hrabrost je ne samo odvažna, nego i plemenita. Zato Platon odbacuje nagonsku, životinjsku hrabrost kao mogući model ljudske hrabrosti. Jer, ako je hrabrost prvenstveno vođena saznanjem šta treba odbijati, i u ime čega, onda ona ide samo uz čovjeka kao racionalno biće (animal rationale) spremno da “na sebe preuzme negativno koje nagovještava strah radi potpunosti pozitivnog” (P.Tillich).

Tek kao čin racionalnog samopotvrđivanja, hrabrost čovjeku daje dignitet bića koje se, uprkos brojnim rizicima, odaziva zovu svojih najdubljih ljudskih potencijala i tako sudbini odlučno kaže – Ne! Odgovor na pitanje porijekla te odlučnosti (koja nije opšta, tj. nisu svi ljudi hrabri), oslanja se na neke personalno-psihološke predpostavke pojedinca u njegovoj otvorenosti spram svojih egzistencijalno potiskivanih mogućnosti. Ta otvorenost podrazumijeva moć intuitivnog raspoznavanja onoga što je ljudskom biću unutarnje blisko. Na tragu te samobliskosti, «biti otvoren», znači čuti unutarnji zov ljudskog, i – odazvati mu se.

Čime je i na koji način određeno ponašanje ove vrste?

Odgovor je jednostavan – snagom savjesti čovjeka.