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We Are Not Witches!
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Civil Courage Between Fear and Conscience
by Dr. Asad Bajtal
Asked Kaname , wise men from taif :
- Since when are you a man ?
From the first thought , said he.
- And before that ?
I was just born , answers he.
In his article "The answer to the question: What is Enlightenment ?" ( "Berlinische Monatsschrift" , 1784), Emmanuel Kant said: Enlightenment is man's way out of his self-inculpated (selbsverschuldete) immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's common sense without interference from outside leadership . This immaturity is voluntary: Its cause lies not in lack of understanding , but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without the leadership of another.
Sapere Aude! - Have the courage to serve our sanity! It is, thus, the slogan of the Enlightenment.
Of course , Rene Descartes, before Kant , eliminated any possibility of eventual lack of reason as the reason for its non-use , considering that the same is evenly distributed among the people, and that all people are "naturally" able to distinguish truth from error. In this context, the courage shown by reason of serving as the basis of ethical profiling individuals, ie, courage to serve their own minds, becomes the basis of public life ( civil ) attitude that ( psycho ) is politically articulated as courageous self-assertion of the individual self in the resistance to the oppressive - or otherwise - civilized mores of life unacceptable rule authority . There courage of self-affirmation of the self as a rational being determined independently to think yourself - in-the- world called here - civic courage . Therefore, civil courage ( a man 's determination in the wake of its social and existential self-affirmation ) , can be described as " the power of the mind to overcome fear " that the socio- political figures as effective and proven means of continuous ideological control and self-control ( behavioral self-censorship ) public opinion .
esadbajtalPovijesno , such self-assertion of man - citizen becomes relatively wider and more serious feasible only descartovskim principle izvijesnosti supported on an incorruptible epistemological self-consciousness of the individual with whom , on the life and social scene of the West , enters a new form of " self-legitimation ontological habitus man ." In socio - political terms , it is about establishing one epistemological new world based on axiological probuđenoj awareness that nothing is neither perfect nor complete, and that , in its incompleteness ( Buddhist - Hegelian : processuality ) , must , for the sake of publicly advocated truthfulness , constantly be exhibited dif Court / Court of mind as dif - lučivanja truth and error , no matter how otherwise , " it - something " in their realities seemed il / i sounded plausible and acceptable. Because, in his condemnation psychodynamic based on movement (German Bewegung , eng . Movement) , " the opinion is essentially the negation of what is before us " ( Hegel ) . As a historical structure of things , logic heraklitovske changes , implies permanence of their negation , that articulate the societal changes such dif - forest constituent assembly elder civil commotion , ie , attitude of not accepting the current , even when it is existing quite well , simply because they can (a citizen , as - rational animal - will) , that is - and better .
It's reasonable ( logical ) being (animal rationale ) , the Greeks called ζώου λόγον έχον , where this comes from λόγον λέγειν , which means to collect , to face the other , and above all something to convey the sense brought to bear , and thus allow hereof to emerge from its (a) a krivenosti . Root - preserved in the form of our word " see " is a Sanskrit origin ( Vedas ) and mainly means - to know what is to date clearly preserved in slovenščini - VEDETA I vem / ve ( de ) m / = I know , that I see how things are . From here, the only one who sees ( the spirit , the mind ) , and he knows that . *
So , to "see " in the sense - " know " means : a) confirm the presence or absence of a rational view of their belongings ; and , b ) assert themselves in this view , ie opinion mediated knowledge ( cogito , ergo sum ) .
Therefore , under the theme entitled , " not the individual self as such, it confirms that myself , but the individual self as the bearer of reason . The courage of being like the self to itself is the courage to follow her own mind and to resist the irrational power " ( P.Tillich ) , as opposed to the original unacceptable rationality of the world ; those of rationality , from which dif - rational reason to come, and which , critically opservirajući actual givens of the world , again and again.
The moment when , for whatever reason , ceases to combat and non - rational opposition , courage, self- terminates in samopredajućoj to ease conformist adherence to given . This is the time of giving a comprehensive participation in the universal , rational self-affirmation of man ; moment falls from a higher to a lower civil submissive - poslušnički level . In the socio - political level it is the abandonment of intellectual samjeravanja world ; withdrawal of its per - reforestation and its by - ways razumljivanja as civilizing the world on the principles of Kantian zagovaranog Ratio ( Ratia in his enlightenment the required courage and self-criticism ) .
Through the prism of Cartesian methodical skepticism as the basis of civil " reflexive sensibility " power and the state must lose their traditionally - servile outlines chimerical untouchability . In his naspramnosti tory due to questionable and even descartovske doubt that confirmation dreamed izvijesnosti located exclusively in itself : only doubt is unquestionable . I just confidence wipe out doubts . Everything else is subject to the dilemma excited the court of reason and its legitimate survival in seeking its approval and approval . And here , with the drčnom suspicion of " untouchable " , begins a harrowing history , historia CALAMITATUM a history of bloody hardship , persecution and political trials Pleiades najumnijh head of the world because of their independent critical thought , that thought that , while remaining faithful to the postulates of logos , does not fit the incoherence uneducated ( g ) is analyzed orders Authority ( Church , State , ideologies, power , leaders ... ) .
As the most famous , the most prominent aspect of civic courage manifested in history , Socrates' trial looks means insurmountable chasm in the cultural history of mankind that individual conscience and state , ideal and real , they get rough and irreconcilably separated ( M.Horkheimer ) . Socrates unacceptance gesture becomes an ideal -typical paradigmatic form of courage Big refusal .
In the name of what?
The name invokes ethical absent in the present , because " que sommes - nous donc sans secours de ce qui n'existe dog " . [ 1 ] More specifically : what is really against the truth of the reality that it is a reality - in the way of rational ( resp . mental ) capabilities of the world . Man as a rational animal can not and that does not count with these options ; can not be ignored on the basis of a rational world . And his mind , in his critical restlessness , constant pressure not only recognize , but also to affirm their own , and - rational possibilities of the world . And that , guided by this knowledge , superior to the fact of its realities .
They do not conform to the dictate of fact , the human mind them , again and again , normative- critical undergoes its standards as the highest standards of historical world . Following the trail of Mind , critical- driven perfectionist impetus , rational animal coming to the realization that the mind is implacable opponent of the current state of things ; that history as a struggle of the mind against the no-mind , a constant struggle for freedom , and that "non- mental reality needs to be changed , until it comes into harmony with the mind." The imperative of these changes lies the natural origin of human unhappiness as actuating pulses that civil courage , asking for more and better , rejects reconciliation with existing . Every " is " its value must be tested and verified in relation to a possible " should " ; value is never carried out a fact , but the possibilities of the world .
For something to be real human is not enough ( just ) to exist , but to exist " in a format that conforms to the regulations of the mind " ( Hegel ) . And for this to be achieved in a fierce battle that advocates a new social plan that is " inconsistent with the given order ." This struggle precede conscience ( as an ethical term nemirenja ) , and the courage to publicly act according to their conscience , as it is pedagogically exemplary happened in the case of Socrates . Without ( Civil ) courage conscience would only be a sad [ 2 ] of our life , and disregard of her conformist concession to the government that ( mostly ) carefree and irresponsible lives just by religiously - silenced and ethical castrated , ie Cowardly most conciliatory . Therefore , inviting citizens to dignity civic courage , intellectual giant , Nobel laureate Albert Einstein , asking them to support the dignity seek in their own conscience , " do not ever do anything that is against your conscience , even if you and asks states ." [ 3 ]
What is good , you ask ?
It's good to be bold !
CourageZašto courage ?
Because he is running from disturbing changes every ideological an established company seeks to protect as blocked , so thoughtful and instrumentalization of human fear . For this purpose mastered a number of pressing psychological techniques such as exposure of the moral discredit opponents , their blackmail , imprisonment , kažnjavnje , excommunication , dismissal from work ... etc. In fact , " creating an impression that is constantly busy combating the enemy ," power is ostensibly justified and further solidifies not choosing at this either means or ways of fixing this . In this sense, every rebellion as a gesture of civic courage is a decisive and dignified response conscientious individual to authoritative manipulation of fear .
More precisely, as an ethically exemplary response to combat the cynicism of supposed enemies, civil courage is not only courageous, but also noble. So Plato rejected instinctive, animal bravery as a possible model of human courage . For, if courage is primarily driven by knowing what to reject, in the name of anything, then it just goes with the man as a rational being (animal rationale) is ready to "take on themselves negatively suggests that fear works entirely positive " (P.Tillich).
Only an act of rational self-affirmation, courage, dignity of human beings that which, despite numerous risks , response call their deepest human resources and so the fate resolutely says - No! The answer to the question of the origin and determination ( which is not general , that not all people are brave ) , relies on some personal - psychological assumptions of the individual in his openness pushed their existential possibilities . This openness implies the power of intuitive recognition of what a human being internal closely . Following this samobliskosti , " be open " means to hear the call of the inner human , and - answer him .
What is and how a particular behavior of this kind ?
The answer is simple - the power of human conscience .